Interpretation or interpreting is oral translation of speech or sign from a language into another. Translation studies is the systematic study of the theory, description and application of interpretation and translation.
An interpreter is a person who converts a though or expression in a source language into an expression with a comparable meaning in a target language either simultaneously in “real time” or consecutively when the speaker pauses after completing one or two sentences.
The interpreter’s objective is to convey every semantic element as well as tone and regular and every intention and feeling of the message that the source speaker is directing target-language recipients (except is summary interpretation, used sometimes in conferences).
Interpretation and translation :-
the terms interpretation and Translation are commonly used interchangebly but are not synonymous. Interpretation describes immediate conversion of source ( for by sign language), where translation is the conversion of source (recorded oral, sign or text) to text.
In a legal context, such as court interpretation, where ramifications of misinterpretations may he die, accuracy’s paramount. reams of two or more interpreters with one activity interpreting and the second monitoring for greater accuracy, may be deployed.
Translators have time to consider and revise each word and sentence before delivering their product to the client. While live interpretation’s goal is to achieve total accuracy at all times, details of the original. In any language including sign languages, when a word is used for which there is no exact match, expansion may be necessary in order to fully interpret the intended meaning of the word.
Following are the different types of Interpretation :-
Simultaneous Interpreting :- The Interpreter sits in a soundproof room and translates as the speaker speaks. Simultaneous translation should be used for larger events conferences, involving two or more languages as well as at congresses where a time delay could cause problems. As this kind of translating requires high levels of concentration it is necessary that the interpreter is replaced after approximately 20 minutes. This means that an appropriate number of interpreters must be available to carry out an assignment.
Consecutive Interpreting :- Consecutive interpreting means a translation is provided shortly after the original text and is appropriate for shorter speeches and addresses ( e.g Dinner speeches) or for negotiations, in which the presence of a translator can be especially valuable. When using consecutive interpreting the length of an event can be double as long per language as with simultaneous interpreting.
Whispered Interpreting :- In Whispered Interpreting the interpreter translates at the same time as the speaker does not require any special equipment. This kind of interpreting is suitable for very small group (e.g Factory Tours but is, however, no substitute for simultaneous interpreting as the original speaker and the interpreter speak at the same time. This can lead to some unavoidable disturbance. As whispered interpreting requires as much, if not more, concentration as simultaneous interpreting, it is necessary to have two interpreters present per language.
Negotiation Interpreting :- In negotiation interpreting short text passages are translated with a short time delay during a discussion.
Escort/Travel Interpreting :- Escort/Travel interpreting can behave almost as an assistant, helping clients to navigate while they are travelling around on (business) trips. These interpreters may accompany clients to meeting or to a handful of meetings. These escort/travel interpreters are not just interpreters, but often act as cultural liaisons, responsible for everything from ordering food to closing multi-million dollar business deals.
Scheduled Telephone Interpreting (OPI or Over-the-phone Interpretation) :– Scheduled telephone interpreting ( also called OPI or Over-the-Phone Interpretation) can be either simultaneous or consecutive. This form of interpreting is performed during an established appointment where the interpreter does not see both parties in person, but executes the interpreting via telephone.
If the participants of a call are content to hear only the voice of the interpreter telephone interpreting can be conducted in a simultaneous mode, otherwise interpreting should be conducted consecutively.
If the interpreter does not see the speakers and has no access to extra-linguistic clues to the speaker meaning and context, the accuracy of simultaneous telephone interpreting may be significantly lower than for consecutive over-the-phone Interpreting. Most generally, phone interpreting is conducted consecutively.
On-Demand Phone Interpreting :- On-Demand Phone Interpreting is for individuals or organizations that need to communicate across language barriers immediately. This form of interpreting is performed when a party calls a service, selects the required language pair and is connected to an interpreter. The interpreter than comes on the line and interprets the conversation.
On-Demand Phone Interpreting is often used by customs, service call centers and by companies, organization, pharmacies, medical and legal institutions who interact with the limited English proticiency (LEP) population and require interpreting on-demand.
The benefit of On-Demand Phone Interpreting is that it makes interpreting available within minutes. However, it is important to note that interpreter is coming into the conversation blind and may not have the required background information to make the interpretation as successful.
Certain situations required certain interpreting techniques not every techniques is suitable for every situation.
Simultaneous interpreting – the voice in your ear
Conferences, delegation from different countries at one table, exchange of information about the latest methods in heart surgery, strategic agreements within an association. Each person hears and speaks in the language he or she feels confident with, expressing themserves spontaneously and without complication.
Lectures and discussions are interpreted via headphones and microphone quasi simultaneously from a soundproof booth ( which is sometimes wrongly referred to as “simultaneous translation”). The delegates hear the translation via a headset, they can choose the language they wish to hear by setting the channel on the headset. Two to three interpreters per language working in rotation,ensure that the high level of concentration required is maintanied.
Special Types :-
Whispering interpreting :- The interpreter whispers the translation directly into the listener’s ear. Suitable for one or at most two listeners.
Interpreting with a mobile interpretation system for events with several changes of location and larger groups.
Liason Interpreting :-
A one-to-one meeting with your customer about the new, advanced marketing concept or your complex industrial equipment plan. Find out exactly what the customer is looking for what possibilities he has, what his doubts, his wishes are.
The discussion is translated in sections “back and forth” following the natural rhythm of the conversation.
Consecutive interpreting – Expression impresses
An address at a gala dinner or an official reception at the town hall.
The rhetorical impact your make, your well structured speech makes its impression on everyone, both listeners of the original as well as foreign guests.
While you speak, the interpreter records your words using a special note-taking technique and subsequently delivers the speech in the other language. translation of speech sections of up to 15 minutes is not uncommon.